Kanien’kéha dialects are polysynthetic: they have a very high morpheme to word ratio.
One Kanien’kéha word often translates to entire sentences with non-polysynthetic languages.
A literal translation is when each word is translated to a corresponding word in a target language. The tactic is not favorable because there may not be an equivalent word in the target language. The tactic sometimes triggers anxiety for language revivalists working within tech industries. Literal translations often change the meaning of a phrase or will not get the context correct or worse: replace & erase important cultural contexts, history and facts with a colonizing culture’s world views and alternative information that is based on negative bias & even genocidal goals towards the culture that is being colonized.
Trigger Warning: This growing list may include info from and written by colonizers that perform what ever they feel necessary to erase, remove, replace, misrepresent and create chaos for Onkwehonwe of America. Onkwehonwe in this context refers to human beings in their own homelands of Americus Empire with DNA relatives from Americus Empire going all the way back to the time before the violent colonizers’ attempts to genocide Onkwehonwe. English speakers usually refer to Onkwehonwe as ’Indigenous, Aboriginal, Native...’. This list is provided as a resource and some of the content in the links may not accurately represent the views, opinions, goals of the MohawkLanguage.ca and MoniGarr.com team. We do hope this list helps Onkwehonwe who are working on language revival and retention projects to make informed decisions for their own projects and goals.
- Kanien’keha Videos on Demand
- iAmMohawk : iPhone / iPad Game
- facebook group: Mohawk Language Kanien’keha
- Haudenosaunee Languages
- Kanien’keha Hubs : 3D Online Practice Space
- Mohawk Language
- Mohawk Language Book
- Mohawk Language Standardization Guideline
- Mohawk Language Standardization Progress Report
- New words and language adaptation
- Sakoieta Widrick
- TalkMohawk Counting : android
- Vimeo Kanienkeha Videos
- Vimeo Mohawk Language Videos
- YouTube Kanienkeha Videos
- YouTube Mohawk Language Videos
Language Schools, Research, Funding, Grants
- Certified Languages
- Committee on Endangered Languages
- The Endangered Language Fund
- Linguistic Society of America
- Living Tongues Institute
- Saving America’s Endangered Languages
Language Legislation, Laws
- AFN : Languages & Culture
- Federal Agencies take steps to document Endangered languages
- Gov of Canada: Languages Legislation
- Gov of Canada: Preserving & Strengthening Indigenous Language in B.C.
- Gov of Canada Response to Truth & Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Actions 13 to 17
- Indigenous Languages Act
- Indigenous Language Legislation in Canada
- Laws helped kill Indigenous languages…
- Native Languages The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1 – 12
- Parliament of Canada: Bill C-15
- Parliament of Canada : Bill C-91
- Resolution for U.S. Government Action to support the preservation and revitalization of Native American languages.
- What Gov of Canada Indigenous Language Laws need to say (opinion doc)
- 1639 (April 22) Commissum nobis Urban VIII Reaffirms “Sublimus Dei” forbidding enslavement of indigenous people https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_papal_bulls
- Art of War by Sun Tzu: https://suntzusaid.com
- Doctrine of Discovery: https://upstanderproject.org/firstlight/doctrine
- Manifest Destiny: Manifest Destiny, a phrase coined in 1845.Manifest Destiny is the idea that white Americans are divinely ordained to settle the entire continent of North America.The ideology of Manifest Destiny inspired a variety of measures designed to remove or destroy the native population.US President James K. Polk (1845-1849) is the leader most associated with Manifest Destiny.Manifest Destiny inflamed sectional tensions over slavery, which ultimately led to the Civil War. https://www.khanacademy.org/…/age-of…/a/manifest-destiny
- Indian Act: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/i-5/
- Sullivan Campaign. George Washington Papers: The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents. The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-20-02-0661
- Only Inuktitut with 34k speakers, Cree with 16k speakers and Ojibwa with 30k speakers are expected to survive until the next century: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca 2013
- Why Protect & Revitalize Indigenous Languages? Terminology Guide